The beginning of Istanbul as we know has started 7th century B.C. In 4th century A.D the city was rebuilt as a capital by Constantis, they called the city as a Constantinapolis, and from that date on it continued being used as a capital by Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires . While the city was a very important centers of Christianity with empror Constantis, after being conquered by Ottoman Empire had become one of the most important cities of Muslim world. Today it is one of the most populated and biggest cities in the world with its15 million inhabitants.
Bizantion (M.O. 660 - M.S. 324):
Megara`s coming from Greece has arrived Istanbul in 680 B.C. Through Marmara sea and founded the city called Halkedon around Kadikoy area, and another one in Sarayburnu called Bizantion, which was the name of one of their commanders. In 269 B.C. The city was conquered by Birthynias. In 202 B.C. Bizantion had requested help from Roman empire against the threat of Macedonia. After this date the effects of Roman Empire had started in this city and in 146 B.C. İt started to be dominated by Roman empire. After this the city was conquered by Roman, Goth, Nocomedians.
Capital of Roman Empire(324 – 395):
Bizanton was chosen as the city to control the East part of Roman Empire. After this date I. Constantinus (324-337) called the Roman noblemen to the city and made the city population grow even more. The city then was constructed as a capital with ports, waterbases, water distrubution canals and new defense walls. The empire palace(now where Sultanahmet cami is situated) and akropolis (where Topkapi Palace is situated) in hippodrome was constructed. Although the city was firstly called New Rome, I. Constantinus has changed the name to Contantinopolis in 11 May 330. I. Constantinus has made the city one of the most important cities of Christianity by building Aya Irini and Ayasofia temples.(Now still the same names they have)
Byzantine Empire (395 – 1453):
In 476, after the fall of West Rome, East Rome had become Byzantine Empire and Istanbul had become the capital of this empire. In the middle of 6th Century Byzantine empire and Istanbul had begun rising. During the reign of I Justien Ayasofia was reconstructed and city was cleaned after the Black Death which cause half of the population to die. In 7th Century the city was attacked by Sasani and Avars, on 8th century by Bulgarians and Muslims and on 9th century Russian and Bulgarians. In 1204 the city was conquered by Christians, after which the city turned out to be a ruin with only 40-50 thousand inhabitants. After this era Istanbul continued shrinking and getting poorer. The noblemen immigrated to Iznik and Latin empire was only be able to control Istanbul and surrounding areas. In 1254 the Latin empire was sorrounded by enemies in Iznik which was the capital of Ottoman Empires, Trabzon and Epiros in Greece. Before the city was captured by Palailogos Emperor the city got so poor that the wooden parts in the palace was used by II. Baudouin for heating. Ottoman Empire (1453-1923):
The city was started to be surrounded by Ottomans starting 1391. In 1396 Beyazid I. (1389-1403) built a fortress in Anatonial side of the city, to stop the help arriving from Black sea. This continued with Fatih Sultan Mehmet who contructed Rumeli fortress to stop the help arriving the city. After 2 months of struggle the city was conquered on 29 may 1453. (Fatih Sultan Mehmet who was the legend of Ottoman Empires. He was just 14 years old when he was conquered the city.) After which it has become the capital of Ottoman empire. After the city was conquered it was renewed and reconstructed by Ottomans. After 50 years of reconstruction the city became the biggest city in Europe. In 14 September 1509 the city was destroyed by the earthquake which was called little doomsday.Thousands of people died in the earthquake which was thought to be 8 and which lasted about 45 days. In 1520-1566 Istanbul has grown up to be the city as we know now in the reign of Kanuni Sultan Suleyman. In this era we see lots of works done by Mimar Sinan.And we see the beginning of the rise of Istanbul one more time. After it was destroyed once more by the earthquake in 1894 once more the city was conquered by the winning countries on 13November 1918. And lastly after the fall of Ottoman empire the city was conquered by Turkish Republic and lost its characteristic as a capital.
Text of my turkish Friend Serkan Saigily